Burke SJ, Goff MR, Updegraff BL, Lu DH, Brown PL, Minkin SC, Biggerstaff JP, Zhao L, Karlstad MD, Collier JJ
Release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from both resident and invading leukocytes within the pancreatic islets impacts the development of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Synthesis and secretion of the chemokine CCL2 from pancreatic β-cells in response to pro-inflammatory signaling pathways influences immune cell recruitment into the pancreatic islets. Therefore, we investigated the positive and negative regulatory components controlling expression of the CCL2 gene using isolated rat islets and INS-1-derived β-cell lines. We discovered that activation of the CCL2 gene by IL-1β required the p65 subunit of NF-κB and was dependent on genomic response elements located in the -3.6 kb region of the proximal gene promoter. CCL2 gene transcription in response to IL-1β was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the IKKβ and p38 MAPK pathways. The IL-1β-mediated increase in CCL2 secretion was also impaired by p38 MAPK inhibition and by glucocorticoids. Moreover, multiple synthetic glucocorticoids inhibited the IL-1β-stimulated induction of the CCL2 gene. Induction of the MAP Kinase Phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) gene by glucocorticoids or by adenoviral-mediated overexpression decreased p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which diminished CCL2 gene expression, promoter activity, and release of CCL2 protein. We conclude that glucocorticoid-mediated repression of IL-1β-induced CCL2 gene transcription and protein secretion occurs in part through the upregulation of the MKP-1 gene and subsequent deactivation of the p38 MAPK. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory actions observed with MKP-1 overexpression were obtained without suppressing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Thus, MKP-1 is a possible target for anti-inflammatory therapeutic intervention with preservation of β-cell function.
2012. Regulation of the CCL2 gene in pancreatic beta-cells by IL-1 beta and glucocorticoids: Role of MKP-1. PLoS ONE 7, e46986.