Yi Yang, Steven A. Higgins, Jun Yan, Burcu Şimşirlerimiz, Karuna Chourey, Ramsunder Eyer, Robert L. Hettich, Brett Baldwin, Dora M. Ogles, Frank E. Löffler
Organohalide-respiring bacteria have key roles in the natural chlorine cycle; however, most of the current knowledge is based on cultures from contaminated environments. We demonstrate that grape pomace compost without prior exposure to chlorinated solvents harbors a Dehalogenimonas (Dhgm) species capable of using chlorinated ethenes, including the human carcinogen and common groundwater pollutant vinyl chloride (VC) as electron acceptors. Grape pomace microcosms and derived solid-free enrichment cultures were able to dechlorinate trichloroethene (TCE) to less chlorinated daughter products including ethene. 16S rRNA gene amplicon and qPCR analyses revealed a predominance of Dhgm sequences, but Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc) biomarker genes were not detected. The enumeration of Dhgm 16S rRNA genes demonstrated VC-dependent growth, and 6.55±0.64 × 108 cells were measured per μmole of chloride released. Metagenome sequencing enabled the assembly of a Dhgm draft genome, and 52 putative reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes were identified. Proteomic workflows identified a putative VC RDase with 49 and 56.1% amino acid similarity to the known VC RDases VcrA and BvcA, respectively. A survey of 1,173 groundwater samples collected from 111 chlorinated solvent-contaminated sites in the United States and Australia revealed that Dhgm 16S rRNA genes were frequently detected and outnumbered Dhc in 65% of the samples. Dhgm are likely greater contributors to reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in contaminated aquifers than is currently recognized, and non-polluted environments represent sources of organohalide-respiring bacteria with novel RDase genes.
Yang Y, Higgins SA, Yan J, Simsir B, Chourey K, Iyer R, Hettich RL, Baldwin B, Ogles DM, Loffler FE. 2017. Grape pomace compost harbors organohalide-respiring Dehalogenimonas species with novel reductive dehalogenase genes. ISME Journal 10.1038/ismej.2017.127.